Vocabulary-transport across cells

Passive transport-the movement of substances through the cell membrane without the input of energy.

Diffusion-one type of passive transport. Molecules move from one area of high concentration to lower concentration.

Equilibrium-reached when diffusion stops. A state where both sides are equal, the cell and the surrounding environment.

Osmosis-the diffusion of water through a cell membrane.

Facilitated diffusion-a type of passive transport when larger molecules like glucose diffuse through the cell membrane but only with the help of a transport protein.

Active transport-when an input of energy is required to move materials through a cell membrane.

Endocytosis-the process of taking substances INTO a cell by surrounding it with a cell membrane.

Exocytosis-opposite of endocytosis.  The release of a substance

Transport protein-complex molecules lodged in the cell membrane that move large molecule through the cell membrane

GLOSSARY –Cell structure vocabulary


Cell membrane -____outer covering found on ALL cells made of one or more layer of linked molecules__________________

cell wall-___a tough, rigid, outer covering that protects the cells of plants, algae, fungi, and most bacteria and gives it shape_________

Chloroplast-__found in SOME plant cells. Food is made in them. Contain Chlorophyll, which gives off the green color we see in some plants__________

Cytoplasm-____a gelatin-like material found inside every cell which holds hereditary material that controls the life of the cell_______

Endoplasmic reticulum-_aka ER, extends from the nucleus to the cell membrane in a series of folds where material are processed and moved around inside the cell._______

Golgi body-_stacked, flattened membranes that sort proteins and other cellular substances and then package them into vesicles which are surrounded by membranes. The vesicles then deliver these substances to other places in the cell or to the cell membrane where the substance is released to the outside of the cell.______

Mitochondria (plural)-___mitochondrion (singular) energy is released from the breakdown of food into CO2 (carbon dioxide) and H2O (water) active cells contain more mitochondria than inactive cells_________

Nucleus-__it directs all cell activity and is separated from the cytoplasm by a membrane. Materials enter and leave the nucleus through openings in the membrane._____

Organ-_a structure made up of two or more DIFFERENT types of tissue that work together.  (heart for example) Page 47____________

Organelle-___structures found within the cytoplasm of cells and carry out most of the functions for the cell.  (Storage, manufacturing, movement) Most are surrounded by membranes. _______

Ribosome-_the small structure where cells make their own proteins. NOT surrounded by a membrane but still an organelle. _______

Tissue-_a group of similar cells that work together to do one job. Each cell in a tissue does its part to keep the tissue alive.